The development of special education

The development of special education network in historical perspective and the nature and quality of services being offered to special children in Pakistan has been studied and evaluated in this research work. The measures for improvement have also been recommended. To achieve this the various instruments were designed. The interviews of the special educators, support professionals, parents of special children and special persons were conducted. The records of the schools were consulted. The samples were taken from rural as well as urban areas of Pakistan and all the provinces. The research work includes the analysis of historical pattern of development of special schools for all major categories of special children in Pakistan and the provinces. The separate graphs and charts showing trends and of development and distribution in each region )Pakistan as a whole, Punab, Sindh, Balochistan, North West Frontier Provinces and Federal Capital Area) and for each sector (Federal Government, Provincial Government and Non-government Sectors) and for each category (Hearing impaired, visually impaired, Mentally retarded and physically handicapped) are drawn. The analysis of population of special people and schools-age special children and the special children studying in schools has also been carried out. The areas focused for investigating the weaknesses and strengths of the infrastructure include early intervention programmes, educational assessment and placement procedure, availability of special teachers and support professioanals, Special educational needs, system of examination and evaluation, teachers training programmes, mainreaming, provisions in government plicies and legislation. The special schools system evolved in Pakistan as early as first decade of twentieth century however the schools are not in sufficient numbers to cater all the special children. The early intervention programmes in Pakistan are not very well organized The assessment procedures at schools have been discussed and tere is a great room for improvement. The assessment tools need to be standardized for which government support is required. The special needs including equipment and books are not available in sufficient quantity. Most of the schools follow curriculum designed by committees comprising of teachers

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